A bar of soap is a chemical miracle.
A small scented cube that releases molecular forces when held in water.
Soap molecules have the specific property that one side is attracted to water and the other side is repelled. So soap has two indispensable properties for cleaning things.
First, it reduces the attraction of water molecules to each other, allowing them to spread better over what has been put in the soapy water.
Second, the soap molecules can get under the dirt and work it loose, so that the dirt surrounded by groups of molecules floats away, and the dirt does not end up on your hands or your clothes again. Although the Babylonians made soap 4,800 years ago, it was first used to treat skin conditions. A soap’s ability to clean things wasn’t discovered until the Middle Ages. Since many bacterial and viral infections, such as the flu, are passed on through the skin, the discovery of soap is one of the greatest medical breakthroughs in history. The effect of soap on water molecules is useful for preventing fogged up mirrors. A very thin soap film over the mirror breaks through the surface tension of the droplets, so that they form a nice, flat layer, and the mirror reflects again.
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