The sun is a huge ball of different gases. In the center of the sun, the so-called core, these gases produce energy in the form of heat and light. This makes the sun hot and bright. The energy then travels through space and reaches Earth in just 8 minutes.
The temperature of the solar core is 15 million Celsius.The sun’s surface is about 6,000 Kelvin, which is 10,340 degrees Fahrenheit (5,726 degrees Celsius). The amount of solar heat and light is enough to light up Earth’s days and keep our planet warm enough to support life.
Dark spots on the sun are called sun spots. They are the cooler parts of the surface, but they are still incredibly hot. Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun’s photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas. They are regions of reduced surface temperature caused by concentrations of magnetic field flux that inhibit convection. Sunspots usually appear in pairs of opposite magnetic polarity. Their number varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.
The solar cycle is the cycle that the Sun’s magnetic field goes through approximately every 11 years. The magnetic field lines can cause a sudden explosion of energy called a solar flare. Solar flares release a lot of radiation into space. If a solar flare is very intense, the radiation it releases can interfere with our radio communications here on Earth.
The sun is not solid. It is a mixture of two gases: hydrogen and helium. The core of the sun is so hot and there is so much pressure, nuclear fusion takes place: hydrogen is changed to helium. Nuclear fusion creates heat and photons (light).
The center of the sun, the core, is the hottest part of the sun. Here the gases produce energy. It takes 100,000 years to reach the surface of the sun.
Hot gas bubbles make the surface of the sun appear grainy. But you should never look into the sun. The light is so bright it can damage your eyes.